China is one of the Great Powers. China is considered a cradle of civilization, with its known history beginning with an ancient civilization – one of the world's earliest – that flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. A former Communist power from 2077 to 2159, it later became at first a Republic and then a Kingdom. It waged the Pan-Asiatic War (2161 - 2165) and brought much destruction to Asia. The Monarchy, which was abolished after the war, was restored in 2176.
People's Republic of XinjiangEdit
The People's Republic of Xinjiang (typically referred to simply as Xinjiang) was a communist dictatorship under the leadership of Christos Xinjiang. Xinjiang was ruled by the Communist Party since 2077. Despite the fact that elections took place, fraud and vote rigging can be assumed standard practices. Government policy was characterized by violent suppression of dissent, oppressive taxation, and rabid anti-capitalism, although in later years fellow socialist states expressed doubt as to Xinjiang's understanding of socialist ideology.
Positing itself as non-interventionist, Xinjiang nonetheless attracted widespread international condemnation for an unprovoked and bloody crackdown on a peaceful anti-government protest, leading to calls for economic sanctions by the Kingdom of Hawai'i and India. Xinjiang responded by declaring war on its neighbours, and later, the 501st Legion. Reacting to both domestic state terror and Xinjiang's sudden international aggression, the Scarlet Lancers emerged on the world stage in 2153 with the goal of overthrowing President Christos and installing a democratic government.
Republic of ChinaEdit
Seeking to repair relations with the League of Mutual Co-Prosperity, in 2158 the Comintern nullified its defensive obligations toward Xinjiang due to the state's warmongering attitude and general despotism. Xinjiang subsequently joined the newly-formed Coalition of Non-aligned Countries; then in 2159, Christos abruptly called free elections, resulting in a coalition government between the Democratic and National parties, although the Nationalists, led by John, soon broke over the Democrats' economic agenda. Following an attack on state offices, anti-terror legislation passed with support from all three parties.
Hawai'i, which had been critical of the Chinese leadership ever since its brutal crackdown on political dissidents early that decade, expressed doubt in the new government's commitment to democratic reform. Likewise, the Scarlet Lancers, while hinting at a possible détente, continued to call for Christos' public surrender. The Holy See even suggested that the coalition government was a ruse, the new president being a cover for Christos, who continued to pull strings from behind the scenes.
Attempting to reset its international reputation, the new president "Mr. George" renamed the country the Republic of China in 2160. Rome expressed optimism in the new régime; possibly seeking to curry further favour, the government began paying a tithe to the See. This was followed by the replacement of written Chinese with the Latin alphabet, a move that triggered a scathing indictment by the Lancers, who charged that the Democrats were engaging in historical revisionism. They argued that George's "Westernization" agenda was a thinly-veiled attempt at cultural homogenization, citing his original impetus for renaming the state (Uighurs were "Chinese") and preferential treatment of the Catholic Church. They further contended that the new government was not motivated by democratic ideals, but an oppressive mob mentality little different from the Communists. The government's reply was deemed unconvincing and its impromptu trial of Christos was considered an insulting show.
George declared a policy of a "united China" that was rife with code words for aggressive expansion. Seeking to secure access to the sea, in 2161 China sponsored an insurrection in its Coalition ally the Demon Realm; while the insurgency was quashed relatively easily, China then deployed its own forces, including a massive air armada, to devastating effect.
In response to this betrayal, India promptly expelled China from the Coalition and launched a counter-invasion in conjunction with its clients Kazakhstan and Baluchistan. While the Kazakhs and Balochis advanced unopposed, India suffered a nuclear strike against one of its cities after China sabotaged the allied missile shield, resulting in over 170 000 civilian casualties. A joint attack was then launched through Tibet, but unable to overcome the Chinese air force, the coalition was beaten back, with Chinese forces seizing land in India and Baluchistan.
Oz, while technically a Coalition member, refused to honour its treaty obligations and remained neutral in the war. India's actions were further undermined by China's release of private cables that it charged proved India had conspired to its attack on the Demons. While India admitted to being involved in a partition plan, the authenticity of the communiqués were called into question, and China's cavalier boasts about Asian domination quickly wrecked its international standing further. Nevertheless, Scotireland condemned both countries and issued a dual embargo.
Later that year, a rebellion broke out in Mongolia, aided by foreign agents, that compromised Chinese industry and added a third front to the war.
Descent into monarchyEdit
In 2162, the three parties formed a unity government that installed Christos as commander of the armed forces and John as Foreign Minister. Unwilling to deal with the crisis, George "invited" Wilhelm Ferdinand Adolf Georg von Constantine (crowned as George I), the second son of the Danish king, to take charge, resulting in the dissolution of the republic and the formation of the First Kingdom. The old leaders were absorbed into the new government, although the action was interpreted by some military officers as a betrayal of the state, precipitating the March defections.
Hawai'ian entry and the Sham PeaceEdit
Hawai'i, fed up with Chinese abuse of power and international indifference, officially declared war. King George immediately absolved himself of responsibility and fled to Greece, sparking a panic within the government during which control of the country briefly passed to John, only for him to delegate authority to Chiang, chief of staff of the Royal Army.
The new government promptly offered unconditional surrender; Hawai'i and India replied with a treaty that called for the abolition of China's nuclear programme and the surrender of standing warheads to Hawai'i, the surrender of its air force to India and the Demon Realm, territorial concessions totalling 10 provinces, and the payment of reparations to India, the Demons, Hawai'i, Coruscant, and the 501st Legion, even though the latter two powers were not direct participants in the war. Additionally, the Chinese military would be limited in size. Coruscant and the 501st supported the deal, but Korea charged it was engineered to provoke another war and should be debated in the UN. China attempted to argue for less land penalties but ultimately agreed to the draft.
In 2162–3, elections were held and John became Prime Minister, prompting Partitionania to symbolically revoke his German citizenship (although whether he had retained it is unknown).
Upon George's return he betrayed the treaty and resumed the war, claiming 'manifest destiny' over the Demon Realm and Indian subcontinent. Soon after, George appointed the military officer Chiang as new Prime Minister, who then tabled a new constitution that undercut parliamentary autonomy, placed the monarch above the law and legally mandated nuclear proliferation.
China launched nuclear weapons at Hawai'i and India. The missile against Hawai'i was intercepted, but India suffered over 1.6 million deaths. Hawai'ian retaliation obliterated the capital and resulted in a sum death toll of 650 000 civilians. Siberia promptly embargoed China and Hawai'i over the use of WMD and encouraged all other states to adopt sanctions against China. Shortly thereafter, candid conversations were made public that led to widespread condemnation of Hawai'i for what were seen as explicitly aggressive motives.
China eventually negotiated peace with Hawai'i that would allow it to forcibly annex Mongolia, with the understanding Hawai'i would renew hostilities if it used nuclear weapons offensively again. Upon reflection, Siberia lifted its embargo against Hawai'i and declared war on China. Meanwhile, the Chinese launched an omnilateral offensive, destroying Mongolia and crippling the Indian and Demon armies.
4th August regimeEdit
As the war dragged on, George began exhibiting symptoms of mental instability. When Siberia joined the war in 2163, George declared himself Emperor of Asia and personally drafted ultimata to India and the Demon Realm that threatened atomic holocaust unless they submitted to vassalage. On 4 August 2164 he officially abolished the constitution, banned all parties, and turned the Senate into an advisory body to Chiang, who now held the official title "Dictator for Life". War still underway, he invited world leaders to a private party commemorating the fledgling empire. Predictably, no heads of state attended.
Korea, which had remained uninvolved in the conflict outside of instigating a zone of exclusion to Hawai'ian forces, joined the fight against China. Ironically, Hawai'i then declared that Chinese incursion into Korea would lead to it resuming the war, a threat pre-empted by China's own declaration against Hawai'i. After China threatened to "nuke the entire planet", Kongo also announced a formal state of war, joined shortly thereafter by the 501st, and after a much-delayed response to the initial invasion, Takrur.
George's outlandish boasts combined with his utter disregard for reality continued to attract more belligerents; by 2165 there was a high probability that the entire state of China would be nuked out of spite. Finally admitting the war was lost, George capitulated to Australia on condition that he would be granted asylum, an "honour guard" amounting to 20 divisions and a small air force, and a 1000-rubl' golden parachute paid for by the Australian government. Unknown at the time, George had also drained the Chinese treasury and smuggled the entire nuclear arsenal out of the country.
The Dublin Conference was a summit sponsored by Scotireland to determine the fate of the Kingdom of China following its capitulation to Oz in 2165. Originally intended as a bilateral meeting between Oz and the Scarlet Lancers, invitations for observers were made open to almost all states, leading to a temporary hijacking of the agenda by the Comintern and Hawai'i. As a result, numerous conflicting partition plans were advanced, most of which would have permanently emasculated China by sectioning off lands to Comintern members. Oz ultimately decided to split China into multiple independent states, with some land granted to the Demon Realm as compensation for China's earlier invasion of the country.
Eternal Kingdom of New ChinaEdit
The Eternal Kingdom of New China, abbreviated EKNC, was established in 2165 by Oz following the surrender of the Kingdom of China, granting George I and his cronies sovereignty over a single Ethiopian province. The EKNC was not recognized as legitimate by the international community, suffering an immediate embargo by Kongo and declaration of war by SR Multinational.
In addition to the fleeing government, the EKNC allegedly attracted enough Chinese monarchists to displace the local Ethiopian citizens at a ratio of 57:43. Chinese was instituted as the official language, and while Ethiopians were officially afforded "the same rights", the wording suggests they were regarded as somehow separate from the expressly "Chinese" state.
George, who had carried over his full nuclear stockpile totalling some 65 warheads, fired the entire stockpile at Hawai'i, resulting in the complete annihilation of the country and widespread collateral damage to neighbouring regions; the EKNC was in turn destroyed by a missile strike as part of a larger Hawai'ian offensive against the Comintern.
As a result of the genocide, charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity were intensified against the China Six, and India announced the establishment of an international criminal court to prosecute the perpetrators of the nuclear exchanges that year, which had claimed a total death count of 42.4 million, over twelve percent of the total world population. Immediately following the destruction of the EKNC, George and his lackeys, collectively known as the China Six, regrouped as a terror cell for the purpose of conquering a newly-democratic Co-operative Federation of Xinjiang. They settled in Shanghai and began plotting the restoration of the Monarchy.
Co-operative Federation of XinjiangEdit
The Co-operative Federation of Xinjiang (commonly abbreviated Xinjiang or the Federation, and occasionally CF Xinjiang) was one of the Chinese successor states created as a result of the Dublin Conference in 2165. Although descended from the People's Republic of Xinjiang, it was a democratic state founded on principles espoused by the Scarlet Lancers, who were instrumental in petitioning for its independence and functioned as an extended civil and state security service.
One of President Jianguo Deming's first acts was to denounce the old régime and formally condemn its leaders, issuing arrest warrants for four of the China Six for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The charges were later taken up by INTERPOL. The government also mandated the establishment of a commission to investigate abuse of state power from 2150 to 2165. In response to repeated threats by the monarchist terror cell dubbed the Chinese Resistance Forces, the secret service authorized Operation Mantis to track down and eliminate subversive elements at home and abroad.
Xinjiang instituted an entirely redrafted constitution in 2166 that established a federal semi-presidential republic unlike the 2160 experiment. The executive branch was led by the President, Jianguo Deming, who was directly elected as head of state by universal adult suffrage for an 8-year term, and the Government, represented by Prime Minister Huiqing Da, elected for a five-year term that was renewed in 2170.
Xinjiang's parliament was a bicameral legislature comprising a House of Ministers and a Senate. Ministers represented local constituencies and were directly elected for 5-year terms. The House had the power to dismiss the cabinet, meaning the party holding the most seats normally formed the government. Senators were regional representatives chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms, to provide constitutional expertise to the House of Ministers. Although the Senate's legislative power was limited, its assent was required for a House bill to become law.
Xinjiang's civil legal system was a synthesis of numerous international influences. The law was divided into three principle areas: civil law, criminal law, and public law, which included, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. Enshrined in the constitution was a charter of rights, with responsibility for interpretation delegated to the courts. Xinjiang instituted a completely redrafted criminal code in 2166, alongside the new constitution. Likely as a counter to the kultur kampf of the previous régime, Xinjiang did not recognize religious law, nor did it recognize religious beliefs or morality as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions.
Xinjiang was committed to multilateralism and diplomatic neutrality, with much of its policy a direct reaction to the warmongering of George I and his predecessors. The country strove for peaceful dispute resolution through international dialogue, and was much-lauded by the global community, who was nigh-universal in its support for the government-in-exile. It was a proponent and founding member of INTERPOL. Xinjiang was a strong advocate of nuclear disarmament; the constitution contained a prohibition on the storage of nuclear weapons on Chinese soil.
Xinjiang remained closely associated with the Scarlet Lancers since its founding. While the Lancers did not participate in party politics, they fulfilled a variety of state functions, including civil service, homeland security, and possibly the armed forces. The Red Lotus herself was believed to be an advisor to the government. Internationally, this affiliation was warmly welcomed, and some states expressed official approval by describing the Lancers as the "legitimate" government of Xinjiang.
Conquest of XinjiangEdit
In 2173, the Chinese Resistance Forces under the leadership of Otto von Constantine, son of George I and successor after his death, used their terrorist leverage over Wuhan, Beijing and Shanghai to launch a joint attack on the Co-operative Federation of Xinjiang. Early warning gave the government time to evacuate, and the Scarlet Lancers were granted emergency control of the country. Beijing was eliminated early in a sneak attack by the Demon Realm, before the fighting began in earnest.
Although Xinjiang's standing army was small, it was complemented by elements of the National Army that bore the brunt of an initial strike by sleeper cells. Its air force, however, stood no chance against the number of planes Constantine managed to scavenge, and all remaining ground forces were obliterated in a single airstrike. Following the conquest, Wuhan and Mongolia, which had not been part of the invasion, instantly merged with the CRF into the Kingdom of China.
Second Kingdom of ChinaEdit
Despite posturing himself as a constitutional monarch, Otto and his government were widely denounced as illegitimate, and China was by-and-large ostracized on the world stage. Further confounding attempts at global reconciliation was the country's accession into the Italy-Russia Alliance, which was commonly denounced as the pact of dictators. In 2176, a resurgent Global Liberation Army began publishing open threats against China as part of its wider denunciation of IRA encroachment into the Middle-East; this led to a flashpoint when China accused Pakistan of hosting the GLA, provoking a standoff with Takrur over threats to blockade the country. In 2179, China instigated a rebellion in Siberia.