Ma Anliang (simplified Chinese: 马安良; traditional Chinese: 馬安良; pinyin: Mǎ Ānliáng; Wade–Giles: Ma An-liang; 1855 – November 24, 1919) was a Hui born in Linxia, Gansu, China. He defected to Qing in 1872 during the Dungan revolt, along with several other Hui Muslims, including his father, Ma Zhanao, Ma Haiyan, and Ma Qianling.
They belonged to the Huasi menhuan, of the Khafiya Naqshbandi Sufi order. They assisted the Qing Han Chinese general Zuo Zongtang in suppressing the Muslim revolt. In 1877, his father Ma Zhanao defeated a group of Muslim rebels who continued fighting near Hezhou.
General Ma Anliang joined the Qing General Zuo Zongtang, in the campaign against the Turkic Muslim rebels under Yaqub Beg. Ma Anliang led an entire army composed of Chinese Muslim troops against Yaqub Beg's Turkic Muslim forces, and defeated him, reconquering Turkestan for China.
In 1895, he served with the Han Chinese general Tang Yanhe and the Muslim general Dong Fuxiang, assisting them in crushing another Muslim revolt, the Dungan revolt (1895–1896). His Muslim cavalry defeated Muslim rebels at Oxheart Mountain, and relieved the siege of Hezhou on December 4.
He led hui cavalry troops to massacre rebel Muslim fighters who had agreed to negotiate at a banquet, and was promoted to General of Xinjiang, and Colonel of Hezhou for his service, once the revolt was crushed. The revolt was led by Ma Yonglin, Ma Wanfu, and Ma Dahan. Ma Dahan was publicly executed. It was said that Ma Anliang's red cap was dyed with Muslim blood.
During that war, in 1895 He lifted the siege of Xining (sining) with four ying (ying is a Chinese unit for battalion). Ma was assigned to "Barkul military command" sometime before 1910. In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, Ma Anliang, as Tongling of Ho-Chou joined Dong Fuxiang in fighting against the foreigners.
In 1905, Ma Anliang, in cooperation with the Han Chinese magistrate Yang Zengxin, attempted to arrest and execute the Yihewani (Ikhwan in Arabic) leader Ma Wanfu. Ma Qi, one of Ma Anliang's subordinates, staged a rescue operation and brought Ma Wanfu to Xining. Even though he was a Muslim, he and his Muslim troops showed no mercy to Muslims who rebelled against the Qing government, and massacred them.
In 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution erupted, he led over 20 battalions of Hui Muslim troops to defend the Qing dynasty by attacking Shaanxi, which was held by the revolutionaries under Zhang Fenghui.
He defeated the revolutionaries in combat, but then when the Qing emperor Puyi abdicated, Ma agreed to join the new Republic of China government under the Kuomintang. In October 1903, in Ili, Ma Anliang served as "Brigade-General". In April 1912 he became "Commander-in-Chief" of Gansu.
Ma Anliang fought against the bandit Bai Lang, and attacked the Xidaotang (西道堂) Muslim organization. He was suspicious of the Republicanism of the Xidaotang, since Ma was a conservative and a monarchist and supported Yuan Shikai. Yuan Shikai made Ma Anliang a Baron of the First Rank (一等男 Yī děng nán) of the Empire of China (1915–1916).
Ma arranged for the Xidaotang founder Ma Qixi and his family to be shot to death. Han and Hui soldiers under the Hui generals Ma Anliang and Ma Qi united to fight against Bai Lang's bandit army.
In 1914, Ma Anliang tried to exterminate the "New New Sect", the Xidaotang and its leader Ma Qixi (his Arabic name was Ersa (Jesus), he was known as "Prophet Jesus" to westerners). Ma Anliang was the de facto senior leader of all Muslims in northwestern China from the beginning of the Republican era in 1912 until he died in Hezhou (Hochow), on November 24, 1919. He was succeeding by General Ma Fuxiang in this position. Ma Anliang was considered "reactionary", while the learned "scholar" General Ma Fuxiang was considered "progressive".