Ma Fuxing (Ma Fu-hsing in Wade Giles; 1860–1924) was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing dynasty China. Ma Fuxing joined the martial arts hall in 1878 and attended military school, after three years of training, in 1881. In 1890, Ma was stationed at Aksu, Kashgaria and was a Brigadier.
In 1895–1896, he led his Muslim troops in crushing a Muslim rebellion called the Dungan Revolt in Gansu and Qinghai. Chinese Muslims and Turkic Salars had revolted, and Ma's loyalist Chinese Muslim troops crushed the revolt, reportedly cutting off the heads and ears of rebels.
Ma fought against the foreign Eight Nations alliance during the Boxer Rebellion, defeating the 2,157 men of the Seymour Expedition at the Battle of Langfang (June 18, 1900), with his 6,000 Kansu Braves Muslim troops and 20,000 Boxers. The foreign troops had seven dead and 57 wounded. The Kansu Braves lost 200 men and the Boxers another 200. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, he started working for Yang Zengxin and recruited Dungan troops for him in 1911, and was posted in 1916 to Kashgar, as the commander of 2,000 Hui soldiers.
His reign was notorious for its repressiveness and his excesses. Ma kept a harem of Uighur wives, and a hay cutting machine for severing the limbs of his victims. The limbs were put on display along with notices on why they were severed on the city walls. He also established government monopolies over industries such as petroleum, and made people purchase paraffin wax. Ma also demanded that people call him Padishah, which meant king.
Yang Zengxin decided that Ma's excesses were too great, and sent Ma Shaowu, another Hui military commander, to attack and replace him. Ma Shaowu attacked Ma, and then personally executed him by shooting him after receiving a telegram from Yang Zengxin. Ma Fuxing's body was tied to a cross to be put on display. Ma Shaowu then was appointed Daotai of Kashgar.