|Photograph of Ma Hushan.|
|First||Name: Ma Hushan|
|Second||Position: General, Warlord|
|Third||Nationality: Han Chinese|
|Sixth||Died: 1954 (aged 43-44)|
Ma Hu-shan (simplified Chinese: 马虎山; traditional Chinese: 馬虎山; pinyin: Mǎ Hushān; 1910–1954) was the brother-in-law and follower of Ma Chung-ying, a Ma Clique warlord. He ruled over an area of southern Xinjiang, nicknamed Tunganistan by westerners, from 1934 to 1937.
Ma Hushan fought against the Russian Red Army and White Russian forces during the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang in 1934 and defeated them in battle. Ma Hushan also took part in the war to destroy the First East Turkestan Republic, commanding the 36th division at the Battle of Kashgar and Battle of Khotan.
The 36th division under Ma Hushan crushed a Charkhlik Revolt by the Uighurs in the Charkhlik oasis. The 36th division under Ma Hushan controlled southern Xinjiang's oasis and was nicknamed "Tunganistan" by Peter Fleming.
Ma Hushan and the 36th division declared their loyalty to the Kuomintang government in Nanjing and sent emissaries to Nanjing requesting aid to fight against Sheng Shicai's provincial forces and the Soviet Union.
Khotan was the base of Ma Hushan during his rule over the southern oases. Ma Hushan's troops were said to be "strongly anti-Japanese", and the territory they ruled was covered with "most of the stock anti-Japanese slogans from China proper", and Ma made "Resistance to Japanese Imperialism", part of his governing doctrine. Ma Hushan was described by Ella Maillart as a "well-set-up long-legged man".
Ma's regime forced the switch from the old style to the manufacture of Chinese style carpets by the government owned factory. Ma Hushan ordered for the created of "small blue carpets", "woven in Khotan". They were of Chinese design, with Chinese writing on them.
After Ma's troops were defeated by Sheng Shicai and the Soviets in 1937, Ma fled to British India. He brought thousands of ounces in gold, which was confisticated by the British.
The British kept the money used on detaining Ma Hushan's troops and also for the alleged "looting" of British property in Kashgar, then sent the money "back" to Sheng Shicai's regime. He was detained by the British, then he took a steamer from Calcutta back to China, Qinghai province in 1938.
British telegrams from British India in 1937 said that Tungans like Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan had reached an agreement with the Soviets whom they had fought before, that since the Japanese had began full scale warfare with China, that the Tungans, led by Ma Hushan would help Chinese forces battle Japan, and that Ma Hushan would return to Gansu.
Sven Hedin wrote that Ma Hushan would "certainly obey the summons" to join the Chinese side against Japan in the war. A memorial was set up by the Soviet puppet Sheng Shicai to dead Russians who were killed in combat by Ma Hushan. Ma led the Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950-1958) against the PLA from 1950–1954, using guerilla tactics, abd killed hundreds of PLA soldiers in guerrilla ambushes in valleys and mountains. He was captured in 1954 and executed at Lanzhou.