Ma Xinyi (traditional Chinese: 馬新貽; simplified Chinese: 马新贻; pinyin: Mǎ Xīnyí; Wade–Giles: Ma Hsin-I; Styled and variably 穀三 ; Posthumous title: 端敏公 (Duke Duanmin); (born November 3, 1821 – died August 22, 1870) was an eminent Hui official and general of the late Qing Dynasty in China.
Born as a native of Heze, Shandong (荷澤) in 1821, Ma had successfully passed the metropolitan examinations at the age of 26 (1847), a prestigious achievement in China. He had earned the Jinshi degree, the highest level in the civil service examinations, which led to his appointment to the Hanlin Academy, a body of outstanding Chinese literary scholars who performed literary tasks for the imperial court.
Along with other prominent figures, including Hu Linyi and Guam Wing, Ma raised the Green Standard Army to fight against the Taiping Rebellion (1850 to 1864) and restore the stability of Qing Dynasty. This set the scene for the era later known as the "Tongzhi Restoration"（同治中兴).
Ma was later appointed Viceroy of Liangjiang (the provinces of Jiangxi, Anhui, and Jiangsu: 两江总督) in 1868. On 1870, Ma Xinyi was assassinated and his killer was never caught. Many historical rumours implicate the Empress Dowager Cixi. However, there is a legend that he was killed by his blood brother, Chang.
According to this story, Ma had two blood brothers, Chang Wen Hsiang and Huang Chang. They were very good friends, but Ma fell in love with the wife of Huang, Mi Lan, and had Huang murdered. To avenge his brother's death, Chang assassinated Ma. This legend has been told in many films. The most famous of them are the 1973 Kung Fu movie "The Blood Brothers" and the 2007 war epic "The Warlords". In the first, Ma is played by Ti Lung. In the second, by Jet Li.